PCB Assembly Process Flow: From Bare Board to Finished Product

PCB Assembly Process Flow: From Bare Board to Finished Product

PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is an essential component of electronic devices, acting as a support structure and electrical connection carrier for electronic components. The PCB manufacturing process involves printing conductive circuits on insulating substrates, creating the printed lines that connect components.

PCB Assembly Process Flow1

PCBA (Printed Circuit Board Assembly) refers to the process of assembling electronic components onto a PCB, which can only be counted as finished after all assembly processes are complete. PCBA involves surface-mount technology (SMT) and through-hole technology (THT), including solder paste printing, pick-and-place assembly, reflow soldering, wave soldering, testing, and quality inspection.

PCB Assembly Process Flow2

The PCBA process flow chart can vary, depending on factors such as the type of PCB board, production technology, and complexity of the design. Here are some common types of PCBA production flows:

PCB Assembly Process Flow3

Single-sided SMT Mounting:
This process involves adding solder paste to the component pads, followed by reflow bonding of related electronic components and reflow welding.
Single-sided DIP Interfacing:
For PCBs that require through-hole components, workers manually insert the electronic components before wave-soldering the board. After welding and fixing, the board’s feet can be cut and cleaned. However, this method has low production efficiency.
Single-sided Mixed Assembly:
After printing solder paste and affixing electronic components with reflow welding, DIP insertion occurs, followed by either wave or manual soldering. For boards with few through-hole components, manual welding is recommended.

PCB Assembly Process Flow4

Single-sided Mounting and Cartridge Mixing:
Dual-panel PCBs undergo mounting and inserting processes similar to those of single-sided machining but require fixtures for over-reflow welding and wave soldering.
Double-sided SMT Mounting:
To minimize PCB board area, some designs use double-sided SMT mounting. Side A is arranged with IC components, while side B has chip components.

PCB Assembly Process Flow5

Double-sided Mixed Assembly:
This process may involve either a three-times heating PCBA assembly, which has low efficiency and low wave-soldering passing rates, or manual welding, recommended for PCBs with more SMD than THT components.

PCB Assembly Process Flow6

When seeking PCBA assembly and processing manufacturers, it is crucial to choose experienced providers with high levels of processing equipment. The quality of solder joints on electronic components determines the quality of the PCBA board. Thus, manufacturers should ensure that their assembly process and production processes are optimized to produce high-quality finished products.

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